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What Are the Characteristics of Turning in Machining?

Turning in machining is a method of cutting a work piece on a lathe by rotating the work piece relative to the tool. Turning is the most basic and common cutting processing method. Most work pieces with revolving surfaces can be processed by turning methods, such as internal and external cylindrical surfaces, internal and external conical surfaces, end surfaces, grooves, threads, and rotary forming surfaces. Common lathes can be divided into horizontal lathes, floor lathes, vertical lathes, turret lathes and profiling lathes, and most of them are horizontal lathes.

Due to the development of modern science and technology, a variety of high-strength and high-hardness engineering materials are increasingly used. Traditional turning technology is difficult or impossible to process certain high-strength and high-hardness materials. Hard turning technology makes it possible and has achieved obvious benefits in production.

Here is a brief introduction to you about the characteristics of turning in machining:

1. Introduction to the characteristics of turning in machining

(1) High efficiency of turning in machining

Turning has a higher efficiency than grinding. Turning in machining often uses large cutting depths and high work piece speeds. The metal removal rate is usually several times that of grinding. During turning processing, one clamping can complete multiple surface processing, while grinding requires multiple installations, so the auxiliary time is short and the position accuracy between the processed surfaces is high.

(2) The cost of equipment investment is low. When the productivity is the same, the investment of a lathe is obviously better than that of a grinder, and the cost of its auxiliary system is also low. For small batch production, turning does not require special equipment, while large batch processing of high-precision parts requires CNC machine tools with good rigidity, high positioning accuracy and high repeat positioning accuracy.

(3) Suitable for small batch flexible production requirements. The lathe itself is a flexible processing method with a wide range of processing. The lathe is easy to operate and fast in turning and clamping. Compared with grinding, hard turning can better meet the requirements of flexible production.

(4) Hard turning can make the parts obtain good overall machining accuracy

Most of the heats produced in hard turning is taken away by the cutting oil, and it will not cause surface burns and cracks like grinding. It has excellent surface quality and precise roundness, which can ensure a high degree of processing between the surfaces. Position accuracy.

2. Cutting tool materials and their selection for turning in machining

(1) Coated carbide tools

Coated cemented carbide tools are coated with one or more coatings with good wear resistance on the toughened cemented carbide tools. The coating usually plays the role of the following two aspects: On the one hand, it has better performance than the tool the much lower thermal conductivity coefficient of the base and work piece materials reduces the thermal effect of the tool base; on the other hand, it can effectively improve the friction and adhesion during the cutting process and reduce the generation of cutting heat. Compared with cemented carbide cutting tools, coated carbide cutting tools have greatly improved in terms of strength, hardness and wear resistance.

(2) Ceramic tool

Ceramic tools have the characteristics of high hardness, high strength, good wear resistance, good chemical stability, good anti-adhesion performance, low friction coefficient and low price. In normal use, the durability is extremely high, and the vehicle speed can be increased several times compared with cemented carbide, which is especially suitable for high-hardness material processing, finishing and high-speed processing.

(3) Cubic boron nitride tool

The hardness and wear resistance of cubic boron nitride is second only to diamond, and it has excellent high temperature hardness. Compared with ceramic tools, its heat resistance and chemical stability are slightly worse, but its impact strength and crush resistance are better. It is widely used in the cutting of hardened steel, pearlitic gray cast iron, chilled cast iron and high-temperature alloys. Compared with cemented carbide tools, its cutting speed can even be increased by an order of magnitude.

3. Selection of cutting oil for turning in machining

(1) Tool steel tools have poor heat resistance and lose hardness at high temperatures. Therefore, cutting oils with good cooling performance, low viscosity and good fluidity are required.

(2) When high-speed steel cutting tools perform high-speed rough cutting, the cutting amount is large and a large amount of cutting heat is generated, so cutting oil with good cooling properties should be used. If high-speed steel tools are used for medium and low-speed finishing, low-viscosity cutting oil is generally used to reduce friction and bonding between the tool and the work piece, inhibit the formation of cutting edges, and improve machining accuracy.

(3) Cemented carbide tools have higher melting point and hardness, better chemical and thermal stability, and much better cutting and wear resistance than high-speed steel tools. Active sulfur cutting oil can be used in general processing. If it is heavy cutting, the cutting temperature is very high, and the tool is easy to wear very quickly. At this time, inactive vulcanized cutting oil should be selected and the flow of cutting oil should be increased to ensure sufficient cooling and lubrication.

(4) Ceramic cutting tools, diamond cutting tools and cubic boron nitride cutting tools have high hardness and wear resistance. Low viscosity inactive vulcanized cutting oil is generally used during cutting to ensure the surface finish of the processed work piece.

The above is the characteristics of the turning in machining process and there are precautions. The reasonable selection of tools and cutting oil products can significantly improve the quality of the work piece.

Then, choosing reasonable machining services also becomes very important. Welcome to consult and buy, and we are at your service!

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