By E. J. M. Kendall (Auth.)
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The space Signal R (Load) L FIG. 5. A diagram of the point-contact transistor. charge thus created is compensated by electrons. The injection of holes by the point-contact is also essential in the explanation of transistor action. In Fig. 5 is shown a diagrammatic arrangement of one of the first point-contact transistors, the contacts being of phosphorbronze and ~ 0 - 0 1 cm apart. The base material makes ohmic contact to the germanium. In essence there are two point-contact rectifiers; one, the emitter, is forward biased, and the other, the collector, is reverse biased.
Since the Fermi level is the chemical potential of the electrons in the semiconductor or metal, u p o n placing them in contact there exists initially a difference in this potential. Consequently a current will flow until the potential no longer exists, that is until the chemical potentials or the Fermi levels are the same throughout the system. This is assuming that thermal equilibrium exists. This follows essentially from the thermodynamic result that the condition for two phases to be in equilibrium with respect to any chemical species (in this case electrons), is that the chemical potential of that species should have the same value in the two phases (see Kittel, 1956, appendix IV).
New types of transistors were proposed and improvements to the existing one were made. F o r the sake of coherence the extensions and improvements of the p-n-p and n-p-n transistor will be dealt with first. l^ 1 2 Single-crystal / germanium bar - Collector Emitter \p-type r b (a) • I b 2 (mA) FIG. 5. The tetrode transistor and the variation of r with /*, . b 1&2 The obvious way of increasing the cut-off frequency is to decrease the base resistance and the diffusion capacitance, that is to decrease the base width.
Transistors by E. J. M. Kendall (Auth.)