By Mario Lima, Gianantonio Manzoni
This encompassing quantity gathers contributions by means of well known specialists within the box of pediatric urology to provide a scientific and whole evaluate of the sector. The e-book opens with a common part overlaying the root of renal functionality from the fetus to maturity, diagnostic imaging, anesthesia and infections. In next sections at the kidneys, higher urinary tract, bladder, urethra and genitalia, particular anomalies are defined extensive, from embryological, scientific and diagnostic features via to surgical operation recommendations. designated recognition is dedicated to the function of recent applied sciences similar to endoscopic and robot surgical procedure, yet with out brushing aside the classical rules of pediatric urologic surgical procedure. Urogenital tumors are absolutely coated and the publication closes with a wide bankruptcy on renal transplantation. various black and white and colour illustrations will help the reader in greater knowing a number of the anomalies and the surgical procedures.
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Extra resources for Pediatric Urology: Contemporary Strategies from Fetal Life to Adolescence
The contrast medium used was the gadolinium chelate, bound to the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid macromolecule (DTPA). The biodistribution of the contrast agent is determined solely by the macromolecule of DTPA, so that the gadolinium is filtered by the glomerulus, without significant tubular secretion or reabsorption. 1 mmol/kg) provides an excellent enhancement of the kidneys, allowing the evaluation of RM nephrogram by differentiating enhancing parenchyma from the background. The signal intensity of the aorta is used as the arterial input function for calculating the curve of Patlak (index of the single kidney GFR).
Ultrasound is also the investigation of choice in the follow-up. Urethrography and cystography are used respectively for the evaluation of lesions of the urethra and bladder, which can lead to the suspicion of child abuse. The major trauma is primarily evaluated with ce-CT study . 10 Urogenital Tumors Although all benign and malignant neoplasms are primarily studied by ultrasound and echo-color Doppler, MR and CT are generally required in the subsequent investigation protocol, both for the evaluation of cancer themselves and for search of metastases, particularly lung metastases.
Although the dynamic contrast enhancement is similar to renal scintigraphy, MRU definitely ensures a higher contrast spatial and temporal resolution. A meticulous attention to the preparation of the patient and an accurate scanning technique are fundamental in order to obtain really highquality images. It should be noted that MRU, especially in its functional part, is not yet standardized in various centers of pediatric radiology, resulting in various techniques and procedures related to each other.
Pediatric Urology: Contemporary Strategies from Fetal Life to Adolescence by Mario Lima, Gianantonio Manzoni