By Morris Kline

ISBN-10: 019500714X

ISBN-13: 9780195007145

"[Kline] is unfalteringly transparent in explaining mathematical principles; he's realized yet now not pedantic; he has ancient discernment, a sympathetic social outlook and a pleasant feel of enjoyable and irony.... the wonder and fascination and infrequent excellence of arithmetic emerge from his tale. it's an exhilarating, provocative e-book. - clinical American"Still the simplest textbook for the background and philosophy of arithmetic for undergraduate liberal arts scholars. particularly stable for the age of the medical Revulution. - Janet A. Fitzgerald, Molloy collage, NYProduct DescriptionThis ebook provides a remarkably superb account of the affects arithmetic has exerted at the improvement of philosophy, the actual sciences, faith, and the humanities in Western lifestyles.

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Morris Kline's Mathematics in Western Culture PDF

"[Kline] is unfalteringly transparent in explaining mathematical rules; he's discovered yet no longer pedantic; he has ancient discernment, a sympathetic social outlook and a pleasant experience of enjoyable and irony. .. . the sweetness and fascination and infrequent excellence of arithmetic emerge from his tale. it's a thrilling, provocative publication.

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If insight and imagination, symmetry and proportion, lack of superfluity, and exact adaption of means to ends are comprehended in beauty and are characteristic of works of art, then mathematics is an art with a beauty of its own. Despite the clear indications of history that all of the factors above have motivated the creation of mathematics there have been many erroneous pronouncements. There are the charges—often made to excuse neglect of the subject—that mathematicians like to indulge in pointless speculations or that they are silly and useless dreamers.

A farmer may observe that heavy rains during several successive springs were followed by excellent crops. He concludes that heavy rains are beneficial to crops. Again, because a person may have had unfortunate experiences in dealing with lawyers, he concludes that all lawyers are undesirable people. Essentially, the inductive process consists in concluding that something is always true on the basis of a limited number of instances. Induction is the fundamental method of reasoning in experimental science.

Each letter of the alphabet was associated with a number. In fact, the Greeks and Hebrews used the letters of the alphabet as their number symbols. With each word was associated the number that was the sum of the numbers attached to the letters spelling the word. Two words having the same associated number were believed to be related, and this connection was used to make predictions. Thus a man's death might be prophesied because the numbers attached to the name of some enterprise he planned to undertake and to the word death were the same.

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Mathematics in Western Culture by Morris Kline

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