By Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

ISBN-10: 1556524803

ISBN-13: 9781556524806

The risk and pleasure of Antarctic exploration are unequalled within the annals of event trip. Antarctica: Exploring the intense surveys 4 centuries and forty expeditions to Antarctica, recounting, frequently within the explorers' personal phrases, the wonders and the catastrophes they encountered. extraordinary attractions, hair-raising escapes, and macabre deaths from storms and scurvy attended Ferdinand Magellan's 1520 passage throughout the southern straits and Captain John Biscoe's 1830 Antarctic circumnavigation. Nineteenth-century sealing and whaling expeditions from worldwide are chronicled, and Ernest Shackleton's, Roald Amundsen's, and Robert Scott's anguishing trials of physique and spirit of their separate struggles to arrive the South Pole early within the twentieth century are precise. a last part describes Antarctica this present day, detailing the flora and fauna and geology of a area that's drawing a growing number of viewers who, just like the adventurers prior to them, are interested by the isolation, attractiveness, and problem of the continent.

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The San Antonio, carrying much of the expedition’s provisions, had deserted. But not even the threat of starvation weakened Magellan’s determination to complete his voyage. They sailed for three months across the Pacific, surviving on maggoty biscuit crumbs yellowed with rats’ urine. The men gnawed on leather straps and swallowed soup made with boiled sawdust. Rats were stalked and sold to the highest bidder for “half a ducat or a ducat,” noted Pigafetta. Scurvy ravaged the initial survivors of the voyage and its perils.

The head of the Bay, as well as two places on each side, was terminated by a huge Mass of Snow and ice of vast extent,” Cook wrote. “The inner part of the Country was not less savage and horrible: the Wild rocks raised their lofty summits till they were lost in the Clouds and the Valleys laid buried in everlasting Snow. ” Cook quickly displayed the flag and took possession of the land he named South Georgia. ” Most of the men were overjoyed, believing that at last they had discovered Terra Australis Incognita.

Several weeks later he sighted the mountains of New Zealand. From October 1769 to April 1770 Cook surveyed nearly twenty-five hundred miles of New Zealand’s unknown coasts, circumnavigating both islands. At that point Cook could have returned to England, but he decided to sail west over the Tasman Sea to explore New Holland (Australia). The crossing was rough, with high winds and monstrous swells. Sails were “worn to rags” but John Ravenhill, a sailmaker in his seventies, hunched over the endless folds of canvas, stitching and patching the rips.

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Antarctica: Exploring the Extreme: 400 Years of Adventure by Marilyn J. Landis, Roger Garaudy

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