By Marcel Pelgrom
This textbook is acceptable to be used in graduate-level curricula in analog to electronic conversion, in addition to for practising engineers wanting a state of the art reference on info converters. It discusses numerous analog-to-digital conversion ideas, together with sampling, quantization, reference iteration, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This booklet provides an outline of the state of the art during this box and specializes in problems with optimizing accuracy and velocity, whereas decreasing the facility point.
This new, moment variation emphasizes novel calibration strategies, the categorical standards of latest platforms, the results of 22-nm expertise and the necessity for a extra statistical method of accuracy. Pedagogical improvements to this version comprise greater than two times the workouts on hand within the first variation, solved examples to introduce all key, new strategies and warnings, comments and tricks, from a practitioner’s point of view, anywhere applicable. substantial history details and functional information, from designing a PCB, to lay-out facets, to trade-offs on procedure point, supplement the dialogue of simple rules, making this publication a priceless reference for the skilled engineer.
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12. 3 Measuring Resistance Measuring a resistance seems trivial as it requires the division of a voltage by a current. The fundamental problem is that measuring a current creates voltage drop and measuring voltage creates a current. Next to that all kinds of parasitic resistances are present in the measurement loop. The measurement technique shown in Fig. 17 (left) supplies the current to the resistor via a path separate from the voltage measurement. The four-point technique or Kelvin measurement uses the fact that in practical situations a relatively small current is needed for a voltage measurement, while the additional resistances in the current loop may cause large measurement errors.
4π r2 εr ε0 This field will exercise a force F12 on a second point charge Qs at a distance r12 of F12 = Q p Qs . ” Gauss law and Coulomb’s law are equivalent; one can be derived from the other. Closely related to Gauss law is the Poisson equation, which introduces the potential −ρ ∇2 ·V = −∇ · E = . 39) εr ε0 The potential is the integral of the field. The potential difference in an electrical field associated with a point charge is V (r2 ) − V (r1 ) = r2 r=r1 −E(r)dr = Q 4πεr ε0 1 1 − r2 r1 . 40) The second Maxwell equation resembles mathematically the Gauss law but is defined for magnetics: ∇ · B = 0, B · dA = 0.
405]. 9 Fourier series expansions of signals repeating at a period T [6–8] Square wave (transition at t = 0) −1 − T /2 < t < 0 f (t) = +1 0 < t < T /2 Square ⎧ wave symmetrical around t = 0 −1 − T /2 < t < −T /4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ f (t) = +1 − T /4 < t < T /4 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ −1 T /4 < t < T /2 Square ⎧ wave with Tc high period −1 − T /2 < t < −Tc /2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ f (t) = +1 − Tc /2 < t < Tc /2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ −1 Tc /2 < t < T /2 Triangle⎧ 2t ⎪ ⎪ − T /2 < t < 0 ⎨− T f (t) = ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ + 2t 0 < t < T /2 T Saw tooth t f (t) = 0
Analog-to-Digital Conversion by Marcel Pelgrom