By Franklin E. Zimring
Long ago decade, alarming experiences of juvenile violence have seemed with expanding frequency within the information media. Legislators around the usa have replied to this feeling of nationwide emergency by way of altering some of the legislation designed to deal with juvenile offenders. yet are we actually in the middle of a surge in adolescence violence? extra to the purpose, what reasons adolescence violence and what should still we do approximately it? Franklin Zimring bargains the definitive exam of adolescent violence within the usa either as a social phenomenon and a coverage challenge. This e-book covers the diversity of teenage violence concerns within the Nineteen Nineties, from crime facts to demographic projections to new laws. the result's a radical debunking of Congressional predictions of "a coming hurricane of minor violence" and the half-baked coverage proposals that accompany such warnings. The publication units forth accomplished and dispassionate analyses of 3 key components of sweet sixteen violence coverage: adolescent firearms ownership and use, criteria for move from juvenile to legal courtroom jurisdiction, and criminal sanctions for children who kill. in the course of the e-book, the middle problems with adolescence violence within the Nineteen Nineties are tested with an remarkable measure of analytic rigor. Zimring additionally deals a suitable set of responses to adolescence violence which are in line with a favorable destiny for the juvenile court docket and for America's little ones. well timed and authoritative, American adolescence Violence supplies scholars, students, and coverage makers a much-needed instrument with which to style a positive reaction to at least one of the nation's most annoying social ills.
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Extra resources for American Youth Violence (Studies in Crime and Public Policy)
Arrests under the age of 21 accounted for 37 percent of all homicide arrests; arrests under the age of 18 accounted for 15 percent. Forcible rape is defined as the completed or attempted act of sexual intercourse accomplished by force or the threat of imminent force. A total of 97,464 rapes were reported by the Uniform Crime Reports in 1995. Offenders under 21 made up 28 percent of all rape AMERICAN YOUTH VIOLENCE—A PROFILE 19 arrests in 1995; offenders under 18 were involved in 16 percent of all rape arrests.
Instead, the aggravated assault rate nearly doubled at its peak rate in 1994 and then declined at a slower pace than homicide. Is this evidence that a broad cross section of adolescents was engaging in many types of serious assaults, not limited to the gun cases? If so, why was there no increase in homicides by other means? From a policy and planning perspective, sorting out the meaning of the expansion in aggravated assault arrests is quite important. If only homicides have increased, the number of cases is quite small.
First, the sharp increase in gun use provides a clear alternative explanation for the higher number of killings by youths. It has long been thought that greater use of firearms in attacks can increase the death rate from violence independent of variations in intent because guns are more dangerous. This so-called instrumentality effect would explain a substantial increase in homicide without resort to changes in the motivations or scruples of young offenders if they are willing to use guns in attacks (Cook 1991).
American Youth Violence (Studies in Crime and Public Policy) by Franklin E. Zimring