By Karen A. Feste (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0230118860

ISBN-13: 9780230118867

ISBN-10: 1349384895

ISBN-13: 9781349384891

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Additional resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama

Example text

The perception that the invasion was a Soviet ploy to test American resolve switched the reference point to one defining the matter as a grave threat to the national interest. Failure to resist the Soviet-inspired aggression could result in additional Soviet challenges of a more severe and frequent nature, up to a general war. Resistance to this aggression could lead to uncontrolled escalation, but even if it did not, it would certainly result in numerous American casualties. The framing of the problem led policymakers to believe that they were serving the best interest of the United States by intervening.

Conflict arises by opposing self-interests of parties. Thus achieving a balance of power is the best one can do, which means expanding and preserving one’s power. Liberals believe humans are capable of enlightened cooperation and interdependence; they operate with an optimistic view of the world. Conflict arises because no central process can effectively regulate competition. Thus, it is important to cooperate in order to achieve mutual interests. Constructivists have no real assumptions about human nature; they focus on ideas and communications as key to politics (Rourke, 2007).

Framing is a way to make certain aspects of the perceived reality more or less salient, which, in turn, lead to certain interpretations and conclusions of the text. It induces a particular kind of understanding of events. Framing serves a as a context cue to shortcut literal descriptions of what kinds of knowledge a speaker wishes to activate in their audiences. There is no shortage of framing applications of political leaders. Chapter Two Presidential Frames of Terrorism Decision makers form conscious or unconscious framing judgments in deciding what to say.

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America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama by Karen A. Feste (auth.)

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