By H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch
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Additional info for Aging power delivery infrastructures
The contingency margin (85%-100%) that the typical N-l method assumes is there, is in fact gone. Configuration complexity At high utilization levels a system needs additional switching flexibility to accommodate its need to backup equipment operating at high loading levels with other equipment that is also already operating at high loading levels. Traditional N-1 engineering methods are capable of analyzing the additional complexity this additional switching adds to the system design, at least from the standpoints of both electrical flows and feasibility evaluation of contingency operation.
These are often incompatible with modern consumer needs of fewer interruptions and do not make use of the most modern equipment and techniques for elimination of interruption propagation through the network whenever an outage occurs. • Prioritization of projects is still based on models and concepts developed while utilities were regulated, vertically integrated companies. Most of these prioritization methods are entirely incapable of allocating a limited (constrained) budget among needed projects in the best possible manner [Willis, 1997, Chapter 18].
N-l is not sufficient to assure traditional levels of reliability, when the system is operated at high utilization rates. Basically the reasons are that such systems are much more likely to experience "high stress events" to the point that situations that go beyond the N-l backup capability and are far more likely to occur. Such systems may have from three to five times the potential for customer service quality problems as traditional systems. Coupled with the higher failure rates caused by aging equipment, this creates a serious service quality handicap for the utility.
Aging power delivery infrastructures by H Lee Willis; Randall R Schrieber; Gregory V Welch