By Hywel Williams
The 500 years that separate the mid-tenth century from the mid-15th century represent a serious and formative interval within the background of Europe. This was once the age of the procedure of felony and army legal responsibility referred to as 'feudalism', and of the beginning and consolidation of strong kingdoms in England, France and Spain; it used to be an period of urbanization and the growth of exchange, of the development of the good Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals, of courtly romance and the paintings of the troubadour, and of the founding of celebrated seats of studying in Paris, Oxford and Bologna. however it was once additionally an epoch characterized by way of brutal army event within the launching of armed pilgrimages to free up Jerusalem from Muslim keep an eye on, of the brutal dynastic clash of the Hundred Years' battle and of the devastating pandemic of the Black dying. In a chain of scholarly yet available articles - followed through an array of gorgeous and genuine photos of the period, plus timelines, maps, boxed gains and demonstrate costs - special historian Hywel Williams sheds revelatory mild on each point of a wealthy and complicated interval of ecu heritage. Ottonians and Salians; upward thrust of the Capetians; Normans in England; delivery of the city-states; The Normans in Sicily; the 1st campaign; The Investiture contest; The Hohenstaufen; The Angevin Empire; 12th-century Renaissance; Triumph of the Capetians; The 3rd campaign; The Albigensian campaign; the distinction of Islamic Spain; the dominion of Naples; The Hundred Years struggle I; The Hundred Years battle II; Avignon and the Schism; The Golden Age of Florence; The Reconquista; Popes, Saints and Heretics; Medieval society; Medieval tradition; Medieval conflict.
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Extra info for Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450
William then ruled as regent in Normandy during Robert’s absence which lasted until September 1100, a month after the king’s death. William Rufus’s relations with the Church were turbulent. The king quarreled violently with Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, whose revenues were seized when he died in 1089 and appropriated for Crown use. Lanfranc’s successor Anselm maintained his opposition, and on going into exile in 1097 he appealed to the pope for support. But Urban II was involved in a major dispute with the German emperor Henry IV and could ill afford to make another enemy.
These three cultures were the sibling civilizations of ancient Rome, and western Europe came to define itself as the bastion of Latin Christendom as opposed to the Greeks’ eastern Orthodoxy. Up until at least the year 1000 Europe’s level of cultural, intellectual and material development was clearly inferior to that attained by Byzantium and the Islamic states. During the central or “high” Middle Ages that extended from the 11th to the 13th centuries the continent started to rival its two neighboring powers in terms of political effectiveness, military success and cultural expansiveness.
Suger was the first of the ecclesiastical statesmen who rose to greatness in the service of the French Crown. During the five years following his election as abbot in 1122 Suger devoted most of his time to the administration of Saint-Denis, and the extensive account he wrote of the building project also places the abbey in its historical context. As a center of learning, a royal necropolis and ceremonial setting, the abbey had reflected the policies and supported the interests of successive reges Francorum.
Age of Chivalry: The Story of Medieval Europe, 950 to 1450 by Hywel Williams