By Béla Tomka
A Social background of Twentieth-Century Europe bargains a scientific evaluation on significant points of social lifestyles, together with inhabitants, kin and families, social inequalities and mobility, the welfare kingdom, paintings, intake and rest, social cleavages in politics, urbanization in addition to schooling, faith and tradition. It additionally addresses significant debates and diverging interpretations of old and social learn in regards to the background of eu societies some time past 100 years.
Organized in ten thematic chapters, this publication takes an interdisciplinary process, utilizing the equipment and result of not just background, but additionally sociology, demography, economics and political technological know-how. Béla Tomka provides either the variety and the commonalities of eu societies taking a look not only to Western ecu international locations, yet jap, critical and Southern ecu international locations to boot. an ideal advent for all scholars of ecu heritage.
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Extra resources for A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe
In certain periods and countries, the declining tendency discontinued for a few years. In addition to these short-term ﬂuctuations, a longer, one-and-a-half-decade period of rise can also be found in post-war Western Europe. 3. In Western and Southern Europe, diﬀerences between countries diminished in the course of the century, unlike in East Central Europe, where ﬂuctuations in fertility make it diﬃcult to recognize any tendencies of demographic integration. 1. 2). Although the fertility decline was common to all European countries, it did not occur everywhere simultaneously.
In other countries, fertility decline never truly started until the end of the nineteenth century, or, even more often, the early twentieth century. The starting points are the 1870s in Sweden and England, 1882 in Belgium, 1890 in Germany, 1895 in Switzerland and 1897 in the Netherlands. In the rest of Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Norway) and in Austria, this tendency began after the turn of the century, and in the Balkans, Southern Europe and Ireland only between the two World Wars. 16 In several countries, population growth commenced with a rise in fertility without a corresponding fall in mortality, as it did in the case of the Netherlands in the early nineteenth century.
In Western and Southern Europe, diﬀerences between countries diminished in the course of the century, unlike in East Central Europe, where ﬂuctuations in fertility make it diﬃcult to recognize any tendencies of demographic integration. 1. 2). Although the fertility decline was common to all European countries, it did not occur everywhere simultaneously. When considering the total fertility rate, we ﬁnd that Western Europe continued to be the region with the lowest family size until the end of the twentieth century, even though Ireland constituted a remarkable exception.
A Social History of Twentieth-Century Europe by Béla Tomka