By Daniel C. Snell
A spouse to the traditional close to East bargains scholars and common readers a accomplished review of close to jap civilization from the Bronze Age to the conquests of Alexander the nice. Covers the civilizations of the Sumerians, Hittites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Israelites and Persians areas specific emphasis on social and cultural heritage Covers the legacy of the traditional close to East within the medieval and glossy worlds presents an invaluable bibliographical consultant to this box of analysis
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Extra resources for A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World)
Public buildings, communally constructed if not necessarily community-accessible, also appeared in the early Neolithic and may be seen as indicators of increased attachment to a place. The tower and settlement wall at Neolithic Jericho is an example that has been identified as defensive (Kenyon 1981), or as a means of water management, or a shrine platform (Bar-Yosef 1986). Neolithic Maghzaliyah, in northern Iraq, had a settlement wall, and in southeast Turkey Neolithic sites had special buildings, distinct from houses in plan, construction, and contents ¨ zdogan 1999; Schmidt 2000).
The invaders of Mediterranean origin destroyed the Aegean, Anatolian, and Levantine coastal cities, and reached the Egyptian Delta about 1180. A few years later the Phrygian invaders in central Anatolia, where the Hittite kingdom collapsed completely, reached the Upper Tigris area. A parallel movement took place on the southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, where the Libyan tribes moved from the Sahara region to invade the Nile valley. All these movements, probably caused by a sharp climatic drying about 1200 B C E , drastically changed the political and urban system in the area west of the Euphrates.
Ultimately, pottery is implicated in a conceptual bias in our reconstruction of the past. Is pottery production so important that its absence should define a time period (the awkward ‘‘Pre-Pottery Neolithic,’’ 8000–6500 B C E )? From the earliest humans through the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, preserved material culture was dominated by stone tools. But from the Pottery Neolithic onward (6500 B C E ), the most common artifact was pottery, and pottery becomes our primary instrument for labeling time and society – a shift from tools associated with acquisition to tools associated with consumption.
A Companion to the Ancient Near East (Blackwell Companions to the Ancient World) by Daniel C. Snell