By Eric H. Cline
In 1177 B.C., marauding teams recognized basically because the “Sea Peoples” invaded Egypt. The pharaoh’s military and army controlled to defeat them, however the victory so weakened Egypt that it quickly slid into decline, as did many of the surrounding civilizations. After centuries of brilliance, the civilized international of the Bronze Age got here to an abrupt and cataclysmic finish. Kingdoms fell like dominoes over the process quite a few a long time. not more Minoans or Mycenaeans. not more Trojans, Hittites, or Babylonians. The thriving financial system and cultures of the overdue moment millennium B.C., which had stretched from Greece to Egypt and Mesopotamia, without notice ceased to exist, in addition to writing structures, expertise, and huge structure. however the Sea Peoples by myself couldn't have brought on such common breakdown. How did it happen?
In this significant new account of the explanations of this “First darkish Ages,” Eric Cline tells the gripping tale of the way the top used to be led to by means of a number of interconnected mess ups, starting from invasion and rebellion to earthquakes, drought, and the slicing of foreign exchange routes. Bringing to lifestyles the colourful multicultural global of those nice civilizations, he attracts a sweeping landscape of the empires and globalized peoples of the overdue Bronze Age and exhibits that it used to be their very interdependence that hastened their dramatic cave in and ushered in a dismal age that lasted centuries.
A compelling mix of narrative and the most recent scholarship, 1177 B.C. sheds new gentle at the advanced ties that gave upward push to, and finally destroyed, the flourishing civilizations of the overdue Bronze Age—and that set the level for the emergence of classical Greece.
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Extra info for 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed
It is a site that has been excavated by the Austrian archaeologist Manfred Bietak and his team since 1966. The city had also previously been known as Avaris, capital city of the Hyksos, the hated invaders of Egypt who ruled much of the country from ca. 1720 to 1550 BC. Avaris was transformed into Peru-nefer, a valued Egyptian metropolis, after its capture by Thutmose’s ancestor the Egyptian pharaoh Kamose around the year 1550 BC. In uncovering a formerly wealthy city now buried under meters of sand and debris, Bietak brought both the Hyksos capital city and the later Egyptian metropolis back to life over the course of four decades.
The site has yielded thousands of clay tablets during excavations conducted since 1906 by German archaeologists such as Hugo Winckler, Kurt Bittel, Peter Neve, and Jürgen Seeher. Included among these tablets are letters and documents from what must have been the official state archives, as well as poems, stories, histories, religious rituals, and all kinds of other written documents. Together they allow us to piece together not only the history of the Hittite Of Arms and the Man • • • 35 rulers and their interactions with other peoples and kingdoms, but also that of the ordinary people, including their daily life and society, belief systems, and law codes—one of which contains the rather intriguing ruling “If anyone bites off the nose of a free person, he shall pay 40 shekels of silver”55 (one wonders just how frequently that happened).
22 However, it was a Pyrrhic victory. Although Egypt under Ramses III was the only major power to successfully resist the onslaught of the Sea Peoples, New Kingdom Egypt was never the same again afterward, most likely because of the other problems faced by the entire Mediterranean region during this period, as we shall see below. The succeeding pharaohs, for the rest of the second millennium BC, were content to rule over a country much diminished in influence and power. Egypt became a second-rate empire; a mere shadow of what it had once been.
1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed by Eric H. Cline